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Standards Glossary

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

1SYNC

UCCNet was combined with Transora in 2005 and became 1SYNC, a non-profit subsidiary of GS1 US that helps the supply chain maximize the value of data synchronization.

3DES

Triple Data Encryption Algorithm, or Triple DES, applies the Data Encryption Standard (DES) three times to each data block for increased security against attacks.

A

ACORD

Standards created by insurance people for the insurance industry. ACORD Standards serve as the foundation for data communication across the global industry.

AES

Advanced Encryption Standard is a symmetric key encryption standard adopted by the U.S. government. Comprises AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256. AES is adopted worldwide.

AIAG

Automotive Industry Action Group is an American non-profit association consisting of members from many auto manufacturers, suppliers and service providers. The Group publishes standards for the industry in efforts to establish an efficient and responsible supply chain.

AS1

Applicability Statement 1. Protocol based on SMTP and S/MIME. A specification about how to securely and reliably transfer data over the Internet.

AS2

Applicability Statement 2. Second AS protocol based on SMTP and S/MIME. AS2 messages are always sent using the HTTP or HTTPS protocol.

ASCX12

The Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X12, chartered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), develops EDI standards for global markets and all industries. Goals include enhancing business process, reducing costs and expanding organizational reach.

B

BoostAero

The BoostAero Association creates data exchange standards relating to business processes, documents, data dictionaries and IT framework for aerospace and defense companies and their trading partners. Specified and developed in ebXML by European and American aerospace and defense companies.

BPMI

Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) created the standard for business modeling, Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). Acquired by OMG in 2005.

BPML

Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) is a meta-language for modeling of business processes. BPMI dropped support for it in favor of BPEL.

C

CIDX

No longer exists. Transitioned its standards and operations to the Open Application Group, Inc. (OAGi) and Chemical Information Technology Center (ChemITC).

CII

Criss Industry Invoice (CII) is a standard to enhance links between the business and financial supply chains and enable cross-industry and cross-domain interoperability. Based on requirements from different industries in public and private sectors.

D

DES

Data Encryption Standard (DES), adopted as the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the U.S. in 1976, is now believed to be insecure for many applications. DES has been withdrawn as a standard by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

DGI

Drummond Group, Inc. (DGI) is a trusted interoperability test lab that offers testing services such as auditing, QA, conformance testing, customer software test lab services, software certification, web services testing, consulting and interoperability testing.

DISA

Data Interchange Standards Association (DISA) supports and promotes standards used for B2B data exchange, and provides administrative and technical support to the Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) x12.

Drummond Group

Drummond Group, Inc. (DGI) is a trusted interoperability test lab that offers testing services such as auditing, QA, conformance testing, customer software test lab services, software certification, web services testing, consulting and interoperability testing.

E

ebXML

E-business using eXtensible Markup Language (ebXML) is a family of XML-based standards sponsored by OASIS and UN/CEFACT. ebXML provides an open infrastructure that enables the global use of information interoperably, securely and consistently by all trading partners.

ECDSA

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), the U.S. Federal Government standard (FIPS) for digital signatures, but with elliptic curve cryptography.

EDI-INT

Electronic Data Interchange-Internet Integration (EDI-INT) is a set of protocols for conducting highly-structured Web-based exchanges between organizations.

EDIFACT

United Nations/Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport (UN/EDIFACT) is the international EDI standard developed by the United Nations. Maintenance and development of the standard is handled by the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT).

EDIFICE

The European Network for B2B Integration in High-tech Industries (EDIFICE) drives and enables global standardized B2B adoption in Europe. EDIFICE is the European UN/EDIFACT user group for the electronics industry.

EHI Retail Institute

A scientific institute of the retail industry that includes retail companies, industry associations, manufacturers and service providers. EHI researches topics on the future of retailing, organizes conferences and work groups, helps stage EuroShop (world's largest capital goods trade fair) and operates its own publishing house.

Etebac

Echange Telematique Entre Banques et Clients (ETEBAC) is a French protocol that enables the exchange of financial information.

F

FIXML

The Financial Information eXchange (FIX) is a protocol for international real-time exchange of information for securities transactions and markets. XML representation of business content of FIX messages is FIXML.

FpML

Financial products Markup Language (FpML) is an XML message standard for the OTC Derivatives industry.

G

GS1 EPCglobal

GS1, an international non-profit dedicated to the development and implementation of global standards and solutions for the supply chain, created a joint venture with GS1 US (the GS1 organization in the United States) to create EPCglobal, an organization set up to achieve worldwide adoption and standardization of electronic product code (EPC) technology.

GS1 US X12

GS1 US X12 Requirements Group (XRG) develops and maintains standards and implementation guidelines based on ANSI X12 EDI standards.

GSMP

Global Standard Management Process (GSMP) is part of the GS1 system of standards used in world trade and is part of the GS1 standards development and maintenance process. Members are actively involved in the process.

H

HIPPA

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was enacted by US Congress in 1996. HIPAA Title I: Health Care Access, Portability and Renewability protects health insurance coverage for citizens when they change or lose their jobs. HIPAA Title II: Preventing Health Care Fraud and Abuse; Administrative Simplification; Medical Liability Reform requires standards to be established for electronic health care transactions, and addresses the the security and privacy of health data.

HL7

Health Level 7 (HL7) is a non-profit organization that provides standards and a framework for the exchange and retrieval of electronic health information, and refers to the names of their own standards (for example HL7 v2 x).

HMAC

Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC) is a specific construction for creating a message authentication code (MAC) with encryption and a secret key. HMAC can verify the data integrity and message authenticity simultaneously.

HTTP/S

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a networking protocol and is the foundation for communication for the Internet. Development of HTTP is coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World wide Web Consortium (W3C). (HTTPS) is a combination of HTTP and SSL/TLS protocol for encrypted communication and secure identification of a network Web server.

I

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), in cooperation with the W3C and ISO/IEC standards bodies, develops and promoted Internet standards.

M

MACHA

The Mid-Atlantic Clearing House Association (MACHA) is a non-profit organization that supports and promotes the electronic transfer of funds between member financial institutions nationwide.

MD5

Message-Digest algorithm 5 (MD5) is a widely used cryptographic hash function used in many security applications and is commonly used to check the integrity of files. It is not suitable for SSL certificates or digital signatures, however, because it is not "collision resistant."

N

NACHA

The Electronic Payments Association (NACHA), formerly the National Automated Clearing House Association. NACHA develops electronic solutions to improve the ACH payment system in the U.S. NACHA has eight primary functions such as rule-making for the ACH Network and others; facilitating the development of new payment applications, identification and implementation of risk management initiatives and more.

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a measurement standards lab which is an agency of the U.S. Dept of Commerce. NIST has a Technical Guidelines Development Committee, along with and Information Technology lab.

O

OAGi

Open Applications Group (OAGi) is a non-profit standards development organization which builds process-based business standards for e-commerce, cloud computing, SOA, Web services and enterprise integration.

OASIS

The Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), a global consortium based in the U.S., drives the development, convergence and adoption of Web service and e-business standards. OASIS, in concert with UN/CEFACT, developed ebXML, a set of specifications for e-business.

OASIS WS-BPEL

Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is an OASIS standard executable language for specifying actions within business processes with Web services.

Odette

A non-profit, international automotive industry organization that sets standards for e-business communications, engineering data exchange and logistics management.

OMG

Object Management Group (OMG) is an international non-profit consortium that develops enterprise integration standards for a wide range of technologies. Standards include Model Driven Architecture (MDA).

P

PeSIT

PeSIT is a file transfer protocol created for the French banking system, though its use has spread to other industries.

PGP

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is a data encryption and decryption program that provides authentication and cryptographic privacy to increase security of email.

PIDX

Petroleum Industry Data Exchange (PIDX) is a standard for e-business processes and exchange created by the American Petroleum Institute (API) in order to improve efficiency and interoperability in the industry.

R

RosettaNET

A non-profit consortium consisting of computer, electronics, semiconductor, telecommunications and logistics organizations worldwide that establishes standards for B2B communication. The RosettaNet standard is based on XML and defines message guidelines, interfaces for business processes and implementation frameworks for B2B interaction. RosettaNet originated in the U.S. and is in wide use there and in Asia, though not so much in Europe due to widespread EDIFACT use.

S

SAP

Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing (SAP) is a global organization specializing in enterprise application software. Their mission is to "help companies of all sizes and industries to run better."

SFTP

SSH File Transfer Protocol or Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP), created by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), is a network protocol that provides file access, file transfer and file management functionality over any reliable data stream.

SHA-1

Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) is a cryptographic hash function created by the National Security Agency (NSA). It is a federal information processing standard. Of the three (SHA-0, SHA-1 and SHA-2) SHA-1 is the most commonly used.

SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is used for exchanging information on the Internet. It uses XML format and relies on other application layer protocols such as Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and HTTP for message negotiation and transmission.

SPEC2000

Administered by the Air Transport Association (ATA), Spec 2000 is a set of e-business specifications, products and services for the airline industry. SPEC2000 includes 4 types of information exchange including ATA Aviation, e-commerce standards, file standards and bar coding standards.

SSH

Secure Shell (SSH) is a protocol that allows data to be exchanged using a secure channel between networked devices. Used primarily on Linux and Unix-based systems.

SSL

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), predecessor to Transport Layer Security (TLS), is a cryptographic protocol that provides security over the Internet. Both protocols encrypt segments of connections above the transport layer for privacy and a message authentication code for message reliability. The protocols are in use for Web browsing, Internet faxing, instant messaging and voice-over-IP.

STAR

Standards for Technology in Automotive Retail (STAR) is a non-profit organization consisting of members within the automotive industry that develops industry standards and researches emerging technologies for the benefit of dealers, and is considered the IT standards org for the retail automotive industry.

SWIFT

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) operates a financial messaging network that exchanges messages between banks and financial institutions. SWIFT markets software and services to financial institutions via the SWIFTNet Network. Most global interbank messages use the SWIFT network (9,000+ financial institutions in 209 countries as of 2010). SWIFT is a coop under Belgian law. It has offices around the world and headquarters are in Belgium.

T

TARGET2

The joint gross clearing system of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) that unifies the technical infrastructure of the banks of the European Union. Sweden and the UK do not participate in TARGET2, so they have to use alternative means to make cross-border euro payments. TARGET2 is maintained by Banque de France, Deutsche Bundesbank and Bana d'Italia.

TLS

Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) are cryptographic protocols that provide security over the Internet. Both protocols encrypt segments of connections above the transport layer for privacy and a message authentication code for message reliability. The protocols are in use for Web browsing, Internet faxing, instant messaging and voice-over-IP.

TRADACOMS

An early standard for EDI used mostly in the UK in the retail industry. Tradacoms is becoming outdated in favor of EDIFACT, though it is still being used throughout the UK.

TWIST

The Transaction Workflow Innovation Standards Team (TWIST) is a non-profit group of corporate treasurers, fund managers, banks, suppliers, trading platforms and more that develops new XML standards to connect the financial and physical supply chains. TWIST participates in the management of ISO20022 standards for financial markets.

U

UCC

The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) was first published in 1952 to harmonize the law of sales and commercial transactions in the U.S.

UCCNet

UCCNet was combined with Transora in 2005 and became 1SYNC, a non-profit subsidiary of GS1 US that helps the supply chain maximize the value of data synchronization.

UDDI

Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI) is an open industry initiative sponsored by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). It is a global registry for businesses to list themselves on the Internet and locate other businesses. UDDI was created in 2000.

UML

Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard modeling language for software engineers.

UNECE

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is commission created in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states (56 countries including the U.S. and Canada). UN/CEFACT is a subsidiary of the UNECE Committee on Trade.

V

VDA

VDA 6.1 is a German quality standard for the automobile industry.

W

W3C

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the international standards organization for the World Wide Web. It was created to ensure compatibility and agreement within the industry in the adoption of new standards.

WfMC

Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) is a consortium that defines standards for the interoperability of workflow management systems.

WS-I

OASIS Web Services Interoperability Organization (WS-I) has a mission to advance best practices for certain standards, across platforms, operating systems and programming languages, and is made up of a community of Web services leaders from organizations all over the world.

WSDL

Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is an XML format that provides a model for describing Web services. It is used in combination with and XML schema and SOAP to provide Web services.

WSTF

Web Services Test Forum (WSTF) is an open and free community that allows customers and developers to perform interoperability testing and discuss issues surrounding Web-based technologies.

X

X.509

A standard for a PKI for single sign-on and Privelage Management Infrastructure (PMI) that specifies standard formats for public key certificates, certificate revocation lists, attribute certificates and more.

X12

Sequential designator assigned by ANSI for ASC X12 (develops and maintains EDI standards).

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